India at a glance
India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and a rich cultural heritage. She has achieved overall socio-economic progress over the last 70 years of her Independence. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands out from the rest of Asia, marked by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bordered by the Great Himalayas to the north, it extends to the south and, in the Tropic of Cancer, narrows in the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west.
The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The country is surrounded by Bengal Bay to the east, the Arabian Sea to the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south.
Current local time in India: GMT + 05:30
Border countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan in the northwest; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
The climate of India can usually be classified as a tropical monsoon. But despite much of the northern part of India beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate with relatively high temperatures and dry winters.
There are four seasons:
- winter (December-February)
- Summer (March-June)
- Southwestern monsoon season (June-September)
- after the monsoon season (October-November)
Population: 1,324 billion (2016)
Country name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya
Type of Government: Democratic Republic Sovereign Socialist Secular with a system of Parliamentary
Administrative divisions: 29 States and 7 Union Territories.
Independence: August 15, 1947 (From the British Colonial Regime)
Constitution: The Constitution of India entered into force on January 26, 1950.
Language: There are 22 different languages that have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an official language. Section 343 (3) empowers Parliament to provide by law for the continued use of English for official purposes
Currency: Indian Rupees
- January 26 (Republic Day)
- August 15 (Independence Day)
- October 2 (Gandhi Jayanti, Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday)
The national flag is a horizontal tricolor flag of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportions. The ratio of the flag’s width to its length is from two to three. In the center of the white band is a navy blue wheel representing the chakra.
The superior color of the saffron indicates the strength and the courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. Green shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the earth.
Its design is that of the wheel that appears on the chart of Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter is close to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947.